Modern integrated circuits central or graphic processors are no longer able to function without the use of cooling systems - in this case operating temperature chip achieves such values, which decreases productivity, or even possible output of the device. The most used solution of the problem - the use of kulerov outlet heat from the microprocessor with its subsequent dispersion through the radiator and/or air fan. But the main drawbacks of this approach is not the highest efficiency of traditional kulerov, forcing developers to create does not compact and lightweight cooling system.
However, conventional cooling systems and is an alternative where a more compact, but no less effective - Coolers-based thermoelectric materials. In this case, refers to materials that can conduct electricity as conventional conductors, but in this case, their temperature is rising, but, instead, is reduced. In this area, extensive research conducted by Intel, which scientists have focused on finding the most efficient thermoelectric materials based on thin-film superlattices.
In the case of such material developers of integrated circuits can be very compact cooling system, directly into the body or on the surface of microchip. Moreover, the thermoelectric Coolers will not be on the entire surface of silicon crystals, but only in areas with the highest temperature. Thus, high efficiency cooling is achieved at the maximum energy savings.
As an example, the developers, the following figures:the use of thermoelectric cooler area of only 0, 4 square meters. mm in contact with the hot zone of an integrated circuit, cooling the area to 15 degrees. However, the researchers used only mikroholodilnik, while achieving greater efficiency can be used three or four such devices.
In this way, proving the efficiency of its own design, Intel employees still have to study in further improving the efficiency of the thermoelectric cooler. And one of the pillars of their activities becomes achieving the best thermal contact between the microchip and the cooling device. This reduction of thermal contact resistance, and remains today the main focus of research, and candidates for the role of material предостаточно, they include and carbon nanotubes.