Li-Air:a new type of high-capacity rechargeable batteries

March 2, 2009, 9:42 am

   Li-air (Li-air) high-capacity battery with the new structure was developed by Chaos Zhou (Zhou Haoshen), team leader for the Power Systems Technology Research Research Institute of Energy Technology at the National Institute of advanced sciences and technologies in industry (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST) and Wang Yongangom (Wang Yonggang), foreign scientists from the Japan Society for Promoting Science (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, JSPS).
Although the lithium-ion batteries are widely available in mobile phones and laptops, they have too little energy density for use in electric vehicles. For this reason, the lithium-air batteries, which in theory could still increase its capacity, attracted attention as a new generation of high-capacity batteries. However, the existing lithium-air batteries are the problem, such as the accumulation of solid products of reactions at the cathode, which degrades the contact between the electrolyte and the air stops and relaxation.
The newly developed lithium-air batteries use an organic electrolyte as a negative electrode (lithium metal) and the electrolyte on the basis of water for the positive electrode (air). And these two electrodes separated by a solid electrolyte to prevent mixing. This battery is responding without any problems, because the solid electrolyte allows only lithium ions to pass through it. Products of reaction on the positive electrode is fully dissolved. During the experiment, was confirmed by the continuous discharge of 50 000 mA h/g.
This technology is very promising for automotive batteries. If the water cathode electrolytes can be replaced at the service station, a metallic lithium anode - comes in the form of cassettes, the cars will be able to travel indefinitely, without requiring recharging. The metallic lithium can be electrically restored from spent electrolyte water for reuse. Thus, in a sense, the battery - a new type of fuel cell that uses lithium metal as a fuel.
Electric cars are already industrially implemented to some extent, their ease of use and cost reductions expected for the lithium-ion batteries, will be true when a large autonomy - the distance covered on the same charges. However, the existing lithium-ion batteries have limitations on capacity, than to reduce the range of nonstop driving. To increase that figure to establish a large number of car batteries, which, however, leads to a significant increase in price of the vehicle.
To promote wider use of electric current needed to improve the energy density, at least 6-7 times. Therefore, attention is drawn to the lithium-air batteries, which theoretically can be more energy efficient than lithium ion.


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